Social Anxiety disorder (also called Social Phobia) refers to a condition wherein a person has fear of social situations involving scrutiny or contact with strangers.People are fearful of embarrassing themselves in social situations (eg. Social gatherings, oral presentations, meeting new people). There are apprehensions about negative evaluation & humiliation by others.They have specific fear of being observed/scrutinized while eating or speaking in front of others.In children the fear of anxiety may be expressed by crying, tantrums, freezing, clinging, shrinking or failing to speak in social situations.The fear of anxiety is out of proportion to the given situations.The fear, anxiety or

Autism: Restricted repetitive pattern of behaviour, prefers particular type of toy or food only, avoids eye contact, socially withdrawn- prefers to stay alone, poor communication skills, does not make friends, lacks emotions. ADHD: Inattention, poor concentration, gets distracted easily, avoids schoolwork/homework, Hyperactive &Impulsive, doesn't sit in one place, disturbs others, Impatient-always in a hurry, keeps getting injured frequently, underperform in studies Conduct Disorder: Frequent fighting, Bullying, Lying, Stealing, Destroying property, Cruelty to animals, Running away from home. Temper-Tantrums Mental Retardation: Appears to be lagging behind other children of same age, requires help in self-care, slow at learning, poor academic performance Separation Anxiety Disorder: Excessive fear over separation from loved

Panic Disorder is one of the common mental illnesses. Panic Disorder is characterized by sudden onset of palpitations, sweating, trembling/shaking, shortness of breath, nausea/abdominal distress, chest pain, choking sensations, dizziness, feelings of unreality, fear of dying, feelings of losing control, or feelings of going mad. Panic can be properly treated.1. Recurrent attacks of severe anxiety assciated with palpitation(pounding heart beat), chest pain, choking sensation or suffocation, dizziness and  feeling of unreality ( depersonalization or derealization). 2. There is also fear of dying, losing control or going mad. 3. The other associated features are trembling, excessive sweating, nausea or abdominal distress, chills or heat sensations and 

Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that most men and women desire to experience throughout their lives.Sexual functioning is a complex combination of bio-psycho-social process which is coordinated by neurological,  vascular and endocrine systems and any approach to the study of human sexuality that stresses only in one dimension is counter-productive.Sexual function and activity are closely linked with physical health.Despite the importance of sexual function, sexual problems are highly prevalent yet frequently under-recognized and under diagnosed in clinical practice.ClassificationSexual Disorders can be classified into 4 main typesSexual Dysfunction, not caused by organic disorder or diseaseGender Identity

Characterized by difficulty with sleep initiation and/or maintenance, and final awakenings that occur earlier than the established wakeup time.Patients complain duration of sleep is short or that sleep feels broken, less refreshing, or insufficiently deep, or that the pattern of sleep has changed for the worse.Complains of sleep occur in many psychiatric disorders, including depression, generalized anxiety, panic, phobia, etc.Early insomnia or difficulty in getting sleep, occurs in normal people who are aroused through anxiety or excitement. Their thoughts tend to dwell on the affect-laden experiences of the immediate past and also to rehearse ways of dealing with problems. This

Somatoform disorders are characterized by the presence of the following:Repeated presentation of physical symptoms, together with persistent requests for medical investigations, in spite of repeated negative findings and reassurances by doctors that the symptoms have no physical basis.If any physical disorders are present, they do not explain the nature and extent of the symptoms or the distress and preoccupation of the patient.The diagnosis requires the presence of the following:(1) At least 2 years of multiple and variable physical symptoms for which no adequate physical explanation has been found(2) Persistent refusal to accept the advice or reassurance of several doctors that

The bipolar affective disorder is characterized by changes in mood, energy, and activity levels.These moods range from periods of extremely “elated, irritable, or energized behavior (known as manic episodes) to very “down,” sad, indifferent, or hopeless periods (known as depressive episodes).The lifetime prevalence of the bipolar disorder is 0.6%.The symptoms last at least 1 week and are present most of the day. In the manic phase, the patient may exhibit an elevated mood, increased energy, increased activity, increased talkativeness, over-familiarity, increased sexual energy, decreased need for sleep, increased irritability, and grandiose ideas.

Withdrawn behaviour, school refusal, startled response, declining academic performance, poor concentration, sadness, disturbed sleep, clinginess to parents, reports of bad touch/physical/sexual assault, getting uncomfortable in the presence of specific person(s)Some of the common childhood disorders are:Conduct DisordersAttention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)Specific Learning Disability (SLD)Intellectual DisabilityPICAChildhood disorders can be managed through comprehensive pharmacotherapy, assessments, and psychotherapy.

Phobia can be defined as Irrational, Excessive & Persistent fear of an Object or Situation.The fear is out of proportion to the actual threat. People tend to avoid those situations/objects or endure them with dread. It may be associated with severe anxiety, palpitation, tremulousness, fear of dying/losing control/going mad. It is not relieved by knowledge that other people do not consider those situations/objects as dangerous/threatening. Anticipatory anxiety may be evoked when situation arise of facing it.Some Common Phobias are :1.Claustrophobia : Fear of closed spaces2.Agoraphobia : Fear of open space & crowd3.Social Phobia: Fear of scrutiny by other people & avoidance of social gatherings4.Acrophobia

Dream interpretation is the royal road to the unconscious. (Sigmund Freud). Dreams are meaningful and have a deeper connection with different aspects of the human mind. In dream therapy, dreams especially recurrent dreams and nightmares are understood, explored, interpreted, and analysed. Different hidden meaning, symbols and themes in a person’s life can be identified with the help of dreams. It helps the person to be aware and understand the underlying emotional or psychological stressors and conflicts. To keep a record, regular journalling of dreams after waking up is helpful. Benefits of dream therapy Self-awareness, insight into conflicts and stressors, process emotions, problem solving,